In a direct rule, a colony would be governed by foreign officials while no self-rule was given to natives. The goal was assimilation of the colony into an empire. Government institutions were based on European governments. The Belgian King Leopold II practiced the most brutal style of direct rule in the Belgian Congo. Almost 10,000,000 Congolese were killed in his entire rule. France also often practiced direct rule of her colonies. Vietnam, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia are notable examples.
In an indirectly ruled colony, local government officials might be used, while the native upper-class was given limited self-rule over the colony. The goal was to Westernize future leaders of a colony in order to perpetuate a power’s control. This was accomplished in Raj India under the British East India Tea Company until the Sepoy Rebellion. After the rebellion was put down, the British Government assumed direct rule over the colony.